I left you with a bit of a teaser. We’d defined rings, integral domains, and fields, and even seen a few examples, but in such a short exposition, there wasn’t very much time to give you the tools to work with them. There turn out to be ideas that make better sense in a ring, like primality and divisibility. But to understand them, we need to develop a little machinery, which in this case is the theory of ideals. As I show below, ideals are like better-behaved numbers, and help us understand the structure of, among other things, the integers.

Filed under: Algebra, Math, Set Theory, Topology | Tags: algebra, construction, Math, order theory, set theory

It looks like I’m getting views now, which is surprising. I’ve been pretty busy with schoolwork, but I really want to get this blog up to speed, particularly because I’d like to start discussing things as I’m learning about them. I’d also like to make more non-mathematical posts, but maybe these are best left to a separate blog? Thoughts?

Our first example of a field was the field of rationals, . Recall that this was the field of fractions of the integers, which were in turn the free abelian group on one generator with their natural multiplication. But now it appears that we’re stuck. While we intuitively know what should be — it’s a line, for crying out loud — there seems to be no algebraic way of “deriving” it from . A first guess might be to add in solutions of polynomials, like as the solution of , but not only does this include some complex numbers, it also misses some real numbers like and . (We call such numbers — those that aren’t solutions of polynomials with rational coefficients — **transcendental**. It’s actually quite difficult to prove that transcendental numbers even exist.)

Instead, we turn to topology. Below, I give two ways of canonically defining , one using the metric properties of , one using its order properties. I found this really interesting when I first saw it, but I can’t see it interesting everyone, so be warned if you’re not a fan of set theory or canonical constructions. One of the topological techniques we’ll see will be useful later, but at that point it’ll be treated in its own right.

Filed under: Algebra, Math | Tags: abelian groups, algebra, arithmetic, field theory, group theory, Math, ring theory

In which I sort of breeze through a couple of really awesome and really important concepts. Last time, we classified abelian groups — now we’ll see what happens if we require additional structure on the groups. In particular, I’m going to construct and similarly to how the Peano axioms constructed .

Filed under: Algebra, Math | Tags: abelian groups, algebra, commutative, group theory, Math

Wow, it’s been a long time since I’ve written anything on this blog. I’m taking algebraic topology and an algebraic number theory course this semester, and I started reading through Atiyah and MacDonald’s *Commutative Algebra* over the winter. So I thought I’d continue with a little algebra. The algebra we’ve done thus far has been highly noncommutative, for the most part — we investigated groups like free groups, symmetric groups, matrix groups, and dihedral groups in which the order of operations mattered. As you might expect, with abelian groups, the theory becomes much simpler, and the subject called “commutative algebra” is just the study of abelian groups with extra structure — something like a scalar multiplication, as in the case of vector spaces, or some other operation. But first, we need to understand abelian groups.

When talking about abelian groups specifically, we usually write them additively: the group operation applied to and is , and then we can build expressions like . The proof I give below is due to J. S. Milne, who in turn says it’s similar to Kronecker’s original proof. Of course, I’ve added more detail in places where I thought it was necessary, and taken it out where I thought it wasn’t. There are other, more common proofs, typically using matrices, but I find them unwieldy and inelegant.

Filed under: Algebra, Math | Tags: algebra, geometry, graph theory, group theory, Math, serre

Okay, first post for a while. As I promised quite a while back, let’s prove together that subgroups of free groups are free. It’s surprising that this is nontrivial to prove: just try to come up with some subgroups of and you’ll see what I mean. In fact, using only basic algebraic topology and a bit of graph theory, we can come up with a really simple argument that replaces this one. Perhaps that’s an argument in favor of algebraic topology. But I think this angle is sort of interesting, and it should be a fresh experience for me, at least.

The proof is due to Jean-Pierre “Duh Bear” Serre in his book *Trees*. A heads up if you track this down — Serre has a really weird way of defining graphs. Fortunately, for this proof at least, a little bit of work translates things into the same language of graphs and digraphs that we saw when talking about Cayley graphs. I review that below the fold. It takes a while to set up the machinery, though the proof itself isn’t too long. To recompense, I’ve left out a couple minor details, which you’re probably able to fill in. If some step doesn’t make sense, work it out — or try to disprove it!

Filed under: Algebra, Math, Uncategorized | Tags: algebra, combinatorial, group theory, Math, symmetry

We’ve seen symmetric groups before. The symmetric group on an arbitrary set, or , is the group of bijections from the set to itself. As usual, we’re only interested in the finite case , which we call the **symmetric group on symbols**. These are pretty important finite groups, and so I hope you’ll accept my apology for writing a post just about their internal structure. The language we use to talk about symmetric groups ends up popping up all the time.

Filed under: Algebra, Math | Tags: algebra, combinatorial, group theory, Math

We’ve seen a couple of ways to cut a group into pieces. First, we can look at its subgroups, which I visualize as irregular blobs all containing the identity. Under inclusion, these subgroups form a **lattice**, a partially ordered set in which every two elements have a greatest lower bound (here their intersection) and a least upper bound (here the group generated by their union). The structure of this lattice reveals a lot about the structure of the group and the things attached to it, the fundamental theorem of Galois theory being one powerful example. Second, given one subgroup, we can look at its cosets, which I visualize as parallel slices, and the quotient groups they form.

But cosets are tied to a specific subgroup and aren’t groups themselves, and the lattice of subgroups is in a sense too much information. One of the common problems of math is to find **invariants** — simpler objects that encode a lot of the data in a given structure and are easier to find. The only real way to get simpler than a group is with numbers, and one sequence of numbers is the class equation, which describes the conjugacy classes of the group. I visualize these as radial slices, like the layers of an onion.